Volume II of Mueller on Patent Law analyzes how patents are enforced in the United States and their validity challenged. The volume details patent litigation in the federal courts as well as the America Invents Act (AIA)-implemented proceedings for challenging patentability (IPR, PGR, and CBM). Claim interpretation, jurisdiction and procedure including recent sweeping changes to patent venue, direct and indirect liability (including inducing, contributory, and divided infringement), territoriality concerns, literal and doctrine of equivalents (DOE) infringement, prosecution history estoppel and other legal limitations on DOE liability, declaratory judgment actions, Hatch-Waxman Act pharmaceutical litigation, antitrust issues, remedies, and defenses including inequitable conduct, exhaustion, patent misuse, laches, and equitable estoppel all receive thorough and timely treatment. Because patent protection is frequently global, Volume II explores multi-national procurement and enforcement. Reexamination and reissue in the USPTO are detailed, as is the increasingly important subspecialty of design patent law.